animal starch

Posted on Luty 1, 2008

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Aneuploidy is a change in the number of chromosomes that can lead to a chromosomal abnormality. In humans, in every cell of our bodies, we typically will have 46 chromosomes. The only exception to this is that our egg and sperm cells will only have half the number of chromosomes . The 46 chromosomes can be arranged into 23 pairs. From each pair, we typically will inherit one chromosome from our mother and one from our father. The first 22 pairs of chromosomes are referred to as autosomes, or body chromosomes. They are numbered from 1 through 22 from largest to smallest. The last pair of chromosomes are the sex chromosomes. Females will typically have two X chromosomes, while males will typically have one X chromosome and one Y chromosome.

Glycogen is a polysaccharide of glucose (Glc) which functions as the primary short term energy storage in animal cells. It is made primarily by the liver and the muscles, but can also be made by the brain, uterus, and the vagina. Glycogen is the analogue of starch, a less branched glucose polymer in plants, and is commonly referred to as animal starch, having a similar structure to amylopectin. Glycogen is found in the form of granules in the cytosol in many cell types, and plays an important role in the glucose cycle. Glycogen forms an energy reserve that can be quickly mobilized to meet a sudden need for glucose, but one that is less compact than the energy reserves of triglycerides . In the liver hepatocytes, glycogen can compose up to 8% of the fresh weight  soon after a meal.citation needed Only the glycogen stored in the liver can be made accessible to other organs. In the muscles, glycogen is found in a much lower concentration (1% of the muscle mass), but the total amount exceeds that in liver. Small amounts of glycogen are found in the kidneys, and even smaller amounts in certain glial cells in the brain and white blood cells. The uterus also stores glycogen during pregnancy to nourish the embryo

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